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  • This development notwithstanding the chemotherapeutic

    2024-02-07

    This development notwithstanding, the chemotherapeutic treatment for leukemia has stagnated over the last 40 years [35]. Main treatment options necessitate aggressive chemotherapy to target leukemic cells [36], [37], [38], [39]. Several limitations of current treatment options include the use of anthracycline drugs [38], and severe adverse effects [39] including tumor lysis syndrome [40]. Interpatient genomic heterogeneity adds further constraints to the targeted therapy approach [41]. In theory, such undesirable outcomes in the treatment of leukemia could be avoided by adopting approaches targeting leukemogenesis, rather than later stages of tumor cell proliferation [42]. Towards that aim, we have focused our attention on the role that various aminopeptidases play in the hydrolysis of several intra– and extra–cellular proteins for providing recycled amino acids for the synthesis of new proteins, or for metabolism to provide energetically favorable outcomes [43].
    Results and discussion Chemistry. Based on the previous studies focused on puromycin and related structures in our laboratories [8], [44], [45], we envisioned the utility of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) as a versatile template for obtaining structural analogs targeting the activity of aminopeptidases. As outlined in Scheme 1, all inhibitor scaffolds presented herein were synthetically accessed with PAN as the starting precursor. With the aim of being able to provide aminopeptidase inhibitors via a synthetic route that would be amenable to furnishing the desirable compounds in a user–friendly, and commercially viable manner, the first inhibitor 4 (Fig. 2) was generated via condensation of PAN with N–Boc–protected –phenylalanine in a classic dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) mediated process with N–hydroxy succinimide (NHS) additive [46]. Removal of the protective group was achieved within minutes by anhydrous trifluoroacetic 134 4 (TFA). Possible hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond necessitates the transformation to be performed under strict anhydrous conditions. The reaction proceeds at room temperature to efficiently deprotect the amine functionality within 10 min. Purification of the desired final compounds was accomplished by in vacuo removal of excess TFA, along with azeotropic assistance from dry acetonitrile. The resultant residue was solubilized in methanol and passed through a column of freshly prepared (Cl− to OH−) Amberlite resin. Finally, purification by flash chromatography as detailed in supporting information, furnished the desirable compounds. Additional set of aminopeptidase inhibitors was prepared with the introduction of sulfur moiety in the molecule (Scheme 1). 6–Dimethylamino–9–[3’–(S–benzyl––cysteinylamino)–3′–deoxy–β––ribofuranosyl purine compound 8, and the S–diphenylmethyl congener 9 were prepared according to the reported procedures from our laboratories [47]. To continue exploration of the effect of additional bulk on sulfur moiety, S–triphenylmethyl analog 10 was prepared. Furthermore, it is known that D–isomers of puromycin derivatives usually do not contribute to the inhibition of protein synthesis phenomenon [48]. We sought to exploit this property to limit any possible protein synthesis inhibition while studying aminopeptidase inhibition properties of the synthesized compounds. To that end, a complimentary set of –isomer congeners with a variable number of phenyl rings on sulfur was prepared (Scheme 1, compounds 11–13). To gain further insights into the importance of the nucleosidic fragment in the structure of the inhibitors of aminopeptidases, we synthesized the non–nucleoside compound 17 (Scheme 2). The amine–propanol fragment in 17 was devised to represent the 3’–, 4’–, 5′– carbons and 5′–hydroxy fragment of the parent compound as shown in blue color in Scheme 2. N–Boc–protected S–benzhydryl––cysteine was coupled with 3–amino–1–propanol in an EDC/HOBt mediated reaction. The coupling product 16 was deprotected via the use of 4N HCl in dioxane solution to obtain the desirable final product 17.